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Aftermath of World War I

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❶Following his acquittal, he returned to the United States in and eventually became a US citizen. A Reassessment After 75 Years.

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Others worked in labour battalions to rebuild infrastructure destroyed during the war. The economy had been devastated. Roughly a quarter of the Soviet Union's capital resources were destroyed, and industrial and agricultural output in fell far short of pre-war levels.

To help rebuild the country, the Soviet government obtained limited credits from Britain and Sweden; it refused assistance offered by the United States under the Marshall Plan.

Germany and former Nazi satellites made reparations to the Soviet Union. The reconstruction programme emphasised heavy industry to the detriment of agriculture and consumer goods. By , steel production was twice its level, but the production of many consumer goods and foodstuffs was lower than it had been in the late s. The immediate post-war period in Europe was dominated by the Soviet Union annexing , or converting into Soviet Socialist Republics , [10] [11] [12] all the countries invaded and annexed by the Red Army driving the Germans out of central and eastern Europe.

The Allies established the Far Eastern Commission and Allied Council for Japan to administer their occupation of that country while the establishment Allied Control Council , administered occupied Germany. In accordance with the Potsdam Conference agreements, the Soviet Union occupied and subsequently annexed the strategic island of Sakhalin.

In the west, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France. The Sudetenland reverted to Czechoslovakia following the European Advisory Commission 's decision to delimit German territory to be the territory it held on 31 December Close to one-quarter of pre-war Germany was de facto annexed by the Allies; roughly 10 million Germans were either expelled from this territory or not permitted to return to it if they had fled during the war.

The remainder of Germany was partitioned into four zones of occupation, coordinated by the Allied Control Council. The Saar was detached and put in economic union with France in In , the Federal Republic of Germany was created out of the Western zones. The Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic.

Germany paid reparations to the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union, mainly in the form of dismantled factories , forced labour , and coal. German standard of living was to be reduced to its level. In accordance with the Paris Peace Treaties, , reparations were also assessed from the countries of Italy , Romania , Hungary , Bulgaria , and Finland. US policy in post-war Germany from April until July had been that no help should be given to the Germans in rebuilding their nation, save for the minimum required to mitigate starvation.

The Allies' immediate post-war "industrial disarmament" plan for Germany had been to destroy Germany's capability to wage war by complete or partial de-industrialization. Dismantling of West German industry ended in By , equipment had been removed from manufacturing plants , and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6.

Clay and George Marshall , the Truman administration accepted that economic recovery in Europe could not go forward without the reconstruction of the German industrial base on which it had previously been dependent.

From onwards West Germany also became a minor beneficiary of the Marshall Plan. Volunteer organisations had initially been forbidden to send food, but in early the Council of Relief Agencies Licensed to Operate in Germany was founded. However, after making approaches to the Allies in the autumn of it was allowed to investigate the camps in the UK and French occupation zones of Germany, as well as to provide relief to the prisoners held there.

On 4 February , the Red Cross was permitted to visit and assist prisoners also in the U. The Treaty of Peace with Italy spelled the end of the Italian colonial empire , along with other border revisions. In the Italian constitutional referendum the Italian monarchy was abolished, having been associated with the deprivations of the war and the Fascist rule, especially in the North.

Unlike in Germany and Japan, no war crimes tribunals were held against Italian military and political leaders, though the Italian resistance summarily executed some of them such as Mussolini at the end of the war; the Togliatti amnesty , taking its name from the Communist Party secretary at the time, pardoned all wartime common and political crimes in Austria called Ostmark by the Germans was separated from Germany and divided into four zones of occupation.

After the war, the Allies rescinded Japanese pre-war annexations such as Manchuria , and Korea became independent. The Philippines and Guam were returned to the United States.

The Dutch East Indies was to be handed back to the Dutch but was resisted leading to the Indonesian war for independence. Roosevelt had secretly traded the Japanese Kurils and south Sakhalin to the Soviet Union in return for Soviet entry in the war with Japan. Hundreds of thousands of Japanese were forced to relocate to the Japanese main islands. Okinawa became a main US staging point. The US covered large areas of it with military bases and continued to occupy it until , years after the end of the occupation of the main islands.

The bases still remain. The Allies collected reparations from Japan. To further remove Japan as a potential future military threat, the Far Eastern Commission decided to de-industrialise Japan, with the goal of reducing Japanese standard of living to what prevailed between and In early , the Licensed Agencies for Relief in Asia were formed and permitted to supply Japanese with food and clothes.

In April the Johnston Committee Report recommended that the economy of Japan should be reconstructed due to the high cost to US taxpayers of continuous emergency aid. Japan provided no special assistance to these people until In the Winter War of —, the Soviet Union invaded neutral Finland and annexed some of its territory.

From until , Finland aligned itself with Nazi Germany in a failed effort to regain lost territories from the Soviets. Finland retained its independence following the war but remained subject to Soviet-imposed constraints in its domestic affairs.

In June , the Soviet governments of the Baltic states carried out mass deportations of "enemies of the people"; as a result, many treated the invading Nazis as liberators when they invaded only a week later. The Atlantic Charter promised self-determination to peoples deprived of it during the war. With the return of Soviet troops at the end of the war, the Forest Brothers mounted a guerrilla war. This continued until the mids.

An estimated one million military and civilian Filipinos were killed from all causes; of these , were listed as killed in seventy-two war crime events. According to a United States analysis released years after the war, U.

As a result of the new borders drawn by the victorious nations, large populations suddenly found themselves in hostile territory. Poland lost the Kresy region about half of its pre-War territory and received most of Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line , including the industrial regions of Silesia. The German state of the Saar was temporarily a protectorate of France but later returned to German administration.

As set forth at Potsdam, approximately 12 million people were expelled from Germany, including seven million from Germany proper, and three million from the Sudetenland. During the war, the United States government interned approximately , Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States in the wake of Imperial Japan 's attack on Pearl Harbor.

After the war, some internees chose to return to Japan, while most remained in North America. The Soviet Union expelled at least 2 million Poles from east of the new border approximating the Curzon Line. This estimate is uncertain as both the Polish Communist government and the Soviet government did not keep track of the number of expelled.

The number of Polish citizens inhabiting Polish borderlands Kresy region was about 13 million before World War II broke out according to official Polish statistics. Polish citizens killed in the war that originated from the Polish borderlands territory killed by both German Nazi regime and the Soviet regime or expelled to distant parts of Siberia were accounted as Russian, Ukrainian or Belarusian casualties of war in official Soviet historiography.

This fact imposes additional difficulties in making the correct estimation of the number of Polish citizens forcibly transferred after the war. Additionally, the Soviet Union transferred more than two million people within their own borders; these included Germans, Finns, Crimean Tatars , and Chechens. As Soviet troops marched across the Balkans, they committed rapes and robberies in Romania , Hungary , Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Foreign reports of Soviet brutality were denounced [ by whom?

Rapes also occurred under other occupation forces, though the majority were committed by Soviet troops. This offensive attitude among our troops is not at all general, but the percentage is large enough to have given our Army a pretty black name, and we too are considered an army of rapists. German soldiers left many war children behind in nations such as France and Denmark, which were occupied for an extended period.

After the war, the children and their mothers often suffered recriminations. In the first few weeks of the American military occupation of Japan, rape and other violent crime was widespread in naval ports like Yokohama and Yokosuka but declined shortly afterward. There were 1, reported rapes during the first 10 days of the occupation of Kanagawa prefecture. Historians Eiji Takemae and Robert Ricketts state that "When US paratroopers landed in Sapporo, an orgy of looting, sexual violence, and drunken brawling ensued.

Gang rapes and other sex atrocities were not infrequent" and some of the rape victims committed suicide. Eichelberger , the commander of the U. Eighth Army, recorded that in the one instance when the Japanese formed a self-help vigilante guard to protect women from off-duty GIs, the Eighth Army ordered armored vehicles in battle array into the streets and arrested the leaders, and the leaders received long prison terms. A former prostitute recalled that as soon as Australian troops arrived in Kure in early , they "dragged young women into their jeeps, took them to the mountain, and then raped them.

I heard them screaming for help nearly every night'. Such behavior was commonplace, but news of criminal activity by Occupation forces was quickly suppressed.

Rape committed by U. Soon after the U. At the time, there were only women, children and old people in the village, as all the young men had been mobilized for the war. Soon after landing, the marines "mopped up" the entire village, but found no signs of Japanese forces. Taking advantage of the situation, they started "hunting for women" in broad daylight and those who were hiding in the village or nearby air raid shelters were dragged out one after another.

According to Toshiyuki Tanaka, 76 cases of rape or rape-murder were reported during the first five years of the American occupation of Okinawa. However, he claims this is probably not the true figure, as most cases were unreported. The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate even before the war was over, [67] when Stalin , Roosevelt, and Churchill exchanged a heated correspondence over whether the Polish government-in-exile , backed by Roosevelt and Churchill, or the Provisional Government , backed by Stalin, should be recognised.

A number of allied leaders felt that war between the United States and the Soviet Union was likely. Stalin responded by charging that co-existence between communist countries and the West was impossible. Due to the rising tension in Europe and concerns over further Soviet expansion, American planners came up with a contingency plan code-named Operation Dropshot in It considered possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union and its allies in order to counter a Soviet takeover of Western Europe, the Near East and parts of Eastern Asia that they anticipated would begin around In response, the US would saturate the Soviet Union with atomic and high-explosive bombs, and then invade and occupy the country.

The approach entailed a major buildup of US nuclear forces and a corresponding reduction in America's non-nuclear ground and naval strength. In Greece , civil war broke out in between Anglo-American-supported royalist forces and communist-led forces , with the royalist forces emerging as the victors. On 12 March , to gain Congressional support for the aid, President Truman described the aid as promoting democracy in defence of the " free world ", a principle that became known as the Truman Doctrine.

The US sought to promote an economically strong and politically united Western Europe to counter the threat posed by the Soviet Union. This was done openly using tools such as the European Recovery Program , which encouraged European economic integration.

The International Authority for the Ruhr , designed to keep German industry down and controlled, evolved into the European Coal and Steel Community , a founding pillar of the European Union. The United States also worked covertly to promote European integration, for example using the American Committee on United Europe to funnel funds to European federalist movements. However, without the manpower and industrial output of West Germany no conventional defence of Western Europe had any hope of succeeding.

The attempt was dashed when the French Parliament rejected it. In Asia, the surrender of Japanese forces was complicated by the split between East and West as well as by the movement toward national self-determination in European colonial territories. As agreed at the Yalta Conference , the Soviet Union went to war against Japan three months after the defeat of Germany. The Soviet forces invaded Manchuria. This was the end of the Manchukuo puppet state and all Japanese settlers were forced to leave China.

The Soviet Union dismantled the industrial base in Manchuria built up by the Japanese in the preceding years. Manchuria also became a base for the Communist Chinese forces because of the Soviet presence.

After the war, the Kuomintang KMT party led by generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and the Communist Chinese forces resumed their civil war , which had been temporarily suspended when they fought together against Japan. The fight against the Japanese occupiers had strengthened popular support among the Chinese for the Communist guerrilla forces while it weakened the KMT, who depleted their strength fighting a conventional war.

Full-scale war between the opposing forces broke out in June The KMT forces retreated to the island of Taiwan in Hostilities had largely ceased in Intermittent military clashes occurred between the PRC and Taiwan from Taiwan unilaterally declared the civil war over in , but no formal peace treaty or truce exists and the PRC officially sees Taiwan as a breakaway province that rightfully belongs to it and has expressed its opposition to Taiwanese independence.

Even so, tensions between the two states has decreased over time for example with the Chen-Chiang summits From this point, the relations between them have improved over time although some tension and rivalry remain even with the end of the Cold War and the PRC's distancing from the Communist ideology.

At the Yalta Conference , the Allies agreed that an undivided post-war Korea would be placed under four-power multinational trusteeship. After Japan's surrender, this agreement was modified to a joint Soviet-American occupation of Korea. Korea, formerly under Japanese rule , and which had been partially occupied by the Red Army following the Soviet Union's entry into the war against Japan, was divided at the 38th parallel on the orders of the US War Department.

Hodge , enlisted many former Japanese administrative officials to serve in this government. Simultaneously, the Soviets enabled a build-up of heavy armaments to pro-communist forces in the north. It culminated in the north invading the south, start of the Korean War two years later. Labour and civil unrest broke out in the British colony of Malaya in A state of emergency was declared by the colonial authorities in with the outbreak of acts of terrorism.

In , communist leader Chin Peng reopened hostilities, culminating in a second emergency that lasted until The communist-controlled common front Viet Minh supported by the Allies was formed among the Vietnamese in the colony in to fight for the independence of Vietnam, against both the Japanese and prewar French powers. After the Vietnamese Famine of support for the Viet Minh was bolstered as the front launched a rebellion, sacking rice warehouses and urging the Vietnamese to refuse to pay taxes.

Because the French colonial authorities started to hold secret talks with the Free French, the Japanese interned them 9 March When Japan surrendered in August, this created a power vacuum, and the Viet Minh took power in the August Revolution , declaring the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

However, the Allies including the Soviet Union all agreed that the area belonged to the French. Nationalist Chinese forces moved in from the north and British from the south as the French were unable to do so immediately themselves and then handed power to the French, a process completed by March Attempts to integrate the Democratic Republic of Vietnam with French rule failed and the Viet Minh launched their rebellion against the French rule starting the First Indochina War that same year the Viet Minh organized common fronts to fight the French in Laos and Cambodia.

The war ended in with French withdrawal and a partition of Vietnam that was intended to be temporary until elections could be held. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam held the north while South Vietnam formed into a separate republic in control of Ngo Dinh Diem who was backed in his refusal to hold elections by the US. The communist party of the south eventually organized the common front NLF to fight to unite south and north under the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and thus began the Vietnam War , which ended with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam conquering the South in Japan invaded and occupied Indonesia during the war and replaced much of the Dutch colonial state.

Although the top positions were held by Japanese, the internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions.

Following the Japanese surrender in August , nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence. Before the war the nation had witnessed a massive increase in immigration from many European countries raising the issue of Old Immigrants vs New Immigrants. Effects of WW1 on America Fact During the war between , - , African Americans moved north to the cities in the ' Great Migration '.

The massive influx of people in the cities led to the squalid conditions and problems of Urbanization in America. Soldiers returning home from the war needed jobs and intolerance towards immigrants and African American grew. The levels of intolerance following the Great War had been fuelled by the blatant propaganda techniques used by the Creel Commission.

In over 20 race riots broke out in the cities of the United States. The most serious was the Chicago Race Riot. During the war, the number of workers in Labor Unions increased dramatically.

Workers had been given the right to strike, industrialists and business leaders wanted to break their power. By the end of more than 3, strikes, involving more than 4 million workers, had erupted due to high inflation levels and wage drops. The Seattle General Strike of February 6, to February 11, was a five-day strike by more than 65, workers that paralyzed the city of Seattle, Washington. It started as a shipyard strike but was joined by all the other Seattle unions and became a General Strike.

Many Americans believed that Communists were behind the General Strike fueling the fear and distrust of Communism. Looting and rioting erupted in the city of Boston and the National Guard were called in. The police strikers were called "Agents of Lenin". The Great Steel strike of was a national strike lasting from September 21, — January 8, involving , steelworkers. Steel refused to talk to union leaders and hired African Americans and Mexicans as replacement workers.

The Steel Companies instilled fear in the nation by equating the strikers with communists and public opinion turned against unions. It was in this climate that the First Red Scare — hit the nation. Mitchell Palmer against the communists called the Palmer Raids. Agents conducted raids on the headquarters of various radical organizations and the homes of immigrants and foreign residents.

Palmer established a special division within the Justice Department called the General Intelligence Division, headed by J. The Prohibition Era to was when the manufacture and sale of alcohol was banned.

It was viewed as the solution to the nation's poverty, crime and violence. Prohibition was instituted with ratification of the 18th Amendment and enacted by the Volstead Act.

The end of the Great War, and the start of the new decade, ended the Progressive Era and also ushered in a new period in which people with money wanted to enjoy themselves - it was called The Roaring Twenties The Roaring Twenties introduced Consumerism and Materialism to the United States with massive changes to lifestyle and culture. The Roaring Twenties saw the large-scale use of electricity, labor saving appliances such as refrigerators, washing machines and vacuum cleaners, automobiles and telephones.

See Women in the 's. During World War One Liberty Bonds , and later Victory Bonds, introduced the idea of financial securities to many Americans and encouraged the concept of investment by people from all walks of life. Ordinary Americans were building up high debts because of easy credit and started to gamble on the Stock Market, believing it was a 'safe bet'. The crash led to the ruin of many Americans and was followed by the Great Depression.

The Great Depression effected both classes and became the biggest financial crisis the nation had ever known. The impact and effects of the Great War on America were extremely diverse and directly led to the period in history from referred to as the First Red Scare and the emergence of the 's Ku Klux Klan.

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Effects of WW1 on America Fact 1: The impact of the Great War on the United States saw political, economic and social changes. The United States emerged from the .

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Therefore, the United States had a major influence on the aftermath of World War 1 and the way things turned out. Woodrow Wilson came to the Paris Peace Conference with a Fourteen Point Plan to establish everlasting world peace.

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But Wilson had got his League of Nations—sort of. And World War I was a victory overall for the good guys—sort of. Impact of WWI on America and on the progressive movement Unfortunately, American involvement in WWI had some worrisome indirect effects on the country. A look at the major consequences of World War I, from redrawing the map to creating myths that would contribute to a second great war. That isolation initially limited the impact of America's growth, which would only truly come to fruition in the aftermath of World War II. World War I: America Joins the Fight. How WWI Changed Black.

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Aftermath of World War I and the Rise of Nazism, – - US Holocaust Memorial Museum (Full film) Efforts of the western European powers to marginalize Germany undermined and isolated its democratic leaders. America witnessed much devastation in this time World War I was often referred to as “The Great War”. It began in and ended in Causes Effects And Aftermath Of World War 1 History Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, I believe that we are still dealing with the effects of World War I today and will in.