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Register to view this lesson Are you a student or a teacher? I am a student I am a teacher. What teachers are saying about Study. What Is Survey Research? Are you still watching? Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds. Add to Add to Add to. Want to watch this again later? What is Developmental Research? Non-Comparative Scales in Marketing Research. What is Historical Research? Selecting a Problem to Research. The True Experimental Research Design. Research Methods in Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology for Teachers: Information Systems and Computer Applications.
Devin Kowalczyk Devin has taught psychology and has a master's degree in clinical forensic psychology. This lesson explores the different ways that a researcher can understand individuals or groups of people, both in terms of psychological research as well as general research in other fields. Definitions Sometimes an individual wants to know something about a group of people.
There are three ways a researcher can go about doing a descriptive research project, and they are: Observational , defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants Case study , defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals Survey , defined as a brief interview or discussion with an individual about a specific topic Let's look at specific ways we can use each of these.
Observational If I say, 'chimpanzees,' what do you think? Survey A survey comes in different flavors, be it interviewing people face to face or handing out questionnaires to fill out. Try it risk-free No obligation, cancel anytime. Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: Case Study Case studies are a little more in-depth than an observation and typically a little more holistic.
Lesson Summary Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way.
The three main ways to collect this information are: Observational , defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants Case study , defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals Survey , defined as a brief interview or discussion with the individuals about a specific topic Learning Outcomes After watching this video lesson, you might be able to: Realize the purpose of descriptive research Mention three ways to do descriptive research Emphasize two types of observational research Note the contrasts between case studies and observations Highlight ways of performing survey research.
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You are viewing lesson Lesson 1 in chapter 5 of the course:. Research Methods in Psychology 16 chapters lessons 12 flashcard sets. Setting Up the Research Data Collection Techniques in Qualitative Research Methods and Tutoring Solution Research Methods in Psychology: Certificate Program Research Methods in Psychology: Help and Review Introduction to Psychology: What is Auditory Processing Disorder? Latest Courses Computer Science Network Forensics Computer Science These types of experiments are often used by anthropologists, psychologists and social scientists to observe natural behaviors without affecting them in any way.
It is also used by market researchers to judge the habits of customers, or by companies wishing to judge the morale of staff. The results from a descriptive research can in no way be used as a definitive answer or to disprove a hypothesis but, if the limitations are understood, they can still be a useful tool in many areas of scientific research. The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment. A good example of this would be an anthropologist who wanted to study a tribe without affecting their normal behavior in any way.
True experiments , whilst giving analyzable data, often adversely influence the normal behavior of the subject. Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to quantitative research designs, the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing quantitatively.
Quantitative experiments are often expensive and time-consuming so it is often good sense to get an idea of what hypotheses are worth testing. Because there are no variables manipulated , there is no way to statistically analyze the results. In addition, the results of observational studies are not repeatable , and so there can be no replication of the experiment and reviewing of the results. Descriptive research design is a valid method for researching specific subjects and as a precursor to more quantitative studies.
Whilst there are some valid concerns about the statistical validity , as long as the limitations are understood by the researcher, this type of study is an invaluable scientific tool. Whilst the results are always open to question and to different interpretations, there is no doubt that they are preferable to performing no research at all. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires.
After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:.
Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner. Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give. In addition to the methods listed above some individuals also include qualitative as a distinct method and archival methods when discussing descriptive research methods.
It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected.
It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A? Nothing could be further from the truth. Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach 3rd edition.
Jamie has written seven books and co-authored one.
There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods. The 3 Basic Types of Descriptive Research Methods. Psych Central. Retrieved on.
Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply put, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study.
Descriptive research designs help provide answers to the questions of who, what, when, where, and how associated with a particular research problem; a descriptive . Descriptive research is commonly used in social sciences to study characteristics or phenomenons. Also known as statistical research, researchers look into the frequency, average or other qualitative methods to understand a subject being studied. It involves case studies, observation, survey and.