It was forced to merge with the newspaper Haarlems Dagblad in when Germany occupied the Netherlands. The first successful English daily, The Daily Courant , was published from to This is considered the first newspaper in the American colonies even though only one edition was published before the paper was suppressed by the government.
In , the governor allowed The Boston News-Letter to be published and it became the first continuously published newspaper in the colonies. Soon after, weekly papers began publishing in New York and Philadelphia. These early newspapers followed the British format and were usually four pages long. They mostly carried news from Britain and content depended on the editor's interests.
In , the Pennsylvania Evening Post became the first American daily. In , the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro  had its first edition, printed in devices brought from England , publishing news favourable for the government of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves since it was produced by the official press service of the Portuguese crown. The first newspaper in Peru was El Peruano , established in October and still published today, but with several name changes. During the Tang Dynasty in China — , the Kaiyuan Za Bao published the government news; it was block-printed onto paper.
It is sometimes considered one of the earliest newspapers to be published. However, before he could begin his newspaper, he was deported back to Europe.
He used it as a means to criticize the British rule through journalism. The history of Middle Eastern newspapers goes back to the 19th century. Many editors were not only journalists but also writers, philosophers and politicians. With unofficial journals, these intellectuals encouraged public discourse on politics in the Ottoman and Persian Empires.
Literary works of all genres were serialized and published in the press as well. The first newspapers in the Ottoman Empire were owned by foreigners living there who wanted to make propaganda about the Western world.
One of the earliest women to sign her articles in the Arab press was the female medical practitioner Galila Tamarhan , who contributed articles to a medical magazine called " Ya'asub al-Tib " Leader in Medicine in the s. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspaper-type publications though not all of them developed in the same way; content was vastly shaped by regional and cultural preferences.
In , The Times London acquired a printing press capable of making 1, impressions per hour. This innovation made newspapers cheaper and thus available to a larger part of the population. In , the first inexpensive " penny press " newspaper came to the market: In , August Zang , an Austrian who knew Girardin in Paris, returned to Vienna to introduce the same methods with " Die Presse " which was named for and frankly copied Girardin's publication.
While most newspapers are aimed at a broad spectrum of readers, usually geographically defined, some focus on groups of readers defined more by their interests than their location: More specialist still are some weekly newspapers, usually free and distributed within limited regional areas; these may serve communities as specific as certain immigrant populations, the local gay community or indie rock enthusiasts within a city or region. A daily newspaper is printed every day, sometimes with the exception of Sundays and occasionally Saturdays, and some major holidays  and often of some national holidays.
Saturday and, where they exist, Sunday editions of daily newspapers tend to be larger, include more specialized sections e. Typically, the majority of these newspapers' staff members work Monday to Friday, so the Sunday and Monday editions largely depend on content done in advance or content that is syndicated. Most daily newspapers are sold in the morning.
Afternoon or evening papers, once common but now scarce, are aimed more at commuters and office workers. In practice though this may vary according to country , a morning newspaper is available in early editions from before midnight on the night before its cover date , further editions being printed and distributed during the night.
The later editions can include breaking news which was first revealed that day, after the morning edition was already printed. Previews of tomorrow's newspapers are often a feature of late night news programs, such as Newsnight in the United Kingdom. In , the first daily newspaper appeared, Einkommende Zeitung ,  published by Timotheus Ritzsch in Leipzig , Germany.
In the United Kingdom, unlike most other countries, "daily" newspapers do not publish on Sundays. In the past there were independent Sunday newspapers; nowadays the same publisher often produces a Sunday newspaper , distinct in many ways from the daily, usually with a related name; e. In some cases a Sunday edition is an expanded version of a newspaper from the same publisher; in other cases, particularly in Britain, it may be a separate enterprise, e.
Usually, it is a specially expanded edition, often several times the thickness and weight of the weekday editions and contain generally special sections not found in the weekday editions, such as Sunday comics , Sunday magazines such as The New York Times Magazine and The Sunday Times Magazine.
Daily newspapers are not published on Christmas Day , but weekly newspapers would change their day e. Weekly newspapers are published once a week, and tend to be smaller than daily papers. Some newspapers are published two or three times a week and are known as biweekly publications.
Some publications are published, for example, fortnightly or bimonthly in American parlance. They have a change from normal weekly day of the week during the Christmas period depending the day of the week Christmas Day is falling on. A local newspaper serves a region such as a city, or part of a large city. Almost every market has one or two newspapers that dominate the area. Large metropolitan newspapers often have large distribution networks, and can be found outside their normal area, sometimes widely, sometimes from fewer sources.
Most nations have at least one newspaper that circulates throughout the whole country: Some national newspapers, such as the Financial Times and The Wall Street Journal , are specialised in these examples, on financial matters.
There are many national newspapers in the United Kingdom , but only a few in the United States and Canada. In Canada, The Globe and Mail is sold throughout the country. In the United States, in addition to national newspapers as such, The New York Times is available throughout the country. There is also a small group of newspapers which may be characterized as international newspapers. Some, such as The New York Times International Edition , formerly The International Herald Tribune have always had that focus, while others are repackaged national newspapers or "international editions" of national or large metropolitan newspapers.
In some cases, articles that might not interest the wider range of readers are omitted from international editions; in others, of interest to expatriates , significant national news is retained.
As English became the international language of business and technology, many newspapers formerly published only in non-English languages have also developed English-language editions.
In places as varied as Jerusalem and Mumbai , newspapers are printed for a local and international English-speaking public, and for tourists. The advent of the Internet has also allowed non-English-language newspapers to put out a scaled-down English version to give their newspaper a global outreach.
Similarly, in many countries with a large foreign-language-speaking population or many tourists, newspapers in languages other than the national language are both published locally and imported. For example, newspapers and magazines from many countries, and locally published newspapers in many languages , are readily to be found on news-stands in central London. In the US state of Florida , so many tourists from the French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec visit for long stays during the winter " snowbirds " that some newsstands and stores sell French-language newspapers such as Le Droit.
General newspapers cover all topics, with different emphasis. While at least mentioning all topics, some might have good coverage of international events of importance; others might concentrate more on national or local entertainment or sports. Specialised newspapers might concentrate more specifically on, for example, financial matters.
There are publications covering exclusively sports, or certain sports, horse-racing, theatre, and so on, although they may no longer be called newspapers. For centuries newspapers were printed on paper and supplied physically to readers either by local distribution, or in some cases by mail, for example for British expatriates living in India or Hong Kong who subscribed to British newspapers. Newspaper organizations need a large distribution system to deliver their papers to these different distributors, which typically involves delivery trucks and delivery people.
In recent years, newspapers and other media have adapted to the changing technology environment by starting to offer online editions to cater to the needs of the public. In the future, the trend towards more electronic delivery of the news will continue with more emphasis on the Internet, social media and other electronic delivery methods.
However, while the method of delivery is changing, the newspaper and the industry still has a niche in the world. As of , virtually all major printed newspapers have online editions distributed over the Internet which, depending on the country may be regulated by journalism organizations such as the Press Complaints Commission in the UK.
A new trend in newspaper publishing is the introduction of personalization through on-demand printing technologies or with online news aggregator websites like Google news. Customized newspapers allow the reader to create their individual newspaper through the selection of individual pages from multiple publications.
This "Best of" approach allows revival of the print-based model and opens up a new distribution channel to increase coverage beneath the usual boundaries of distribution. With these online newspapers, the reader can select how much of each section politics, sports, arts, etc. In the United States, the overall manager or chief executive of the newspaper is the publisher. Although he or she rarely or perhaps never writes stories, the publisher is legally responsible for the contents of the entire newspaper and also runs the business, including hiring editors, reporters, and other staff members.
This title is less common outside the U. The equivalent position in the film industry and television news shows is the executive producer. Throughout the English-speaking world, the person who selects the content for the newspaper is usually referred to as the editor. Variations on this title such as editor-in-chief, executive editor, and so on are common.
For small newspapers, a single editor may be responsible for all content areas. At large newspapers, the most senior editor is in overall charge of the publication, while less senior editors may each focus on one subject area, such as local news or sports. These divisions are called news bureaus or "desks", and each is supervised by a designated editor. Most newspaper editors copy edit the stories for their part of the newspaper, but they may share their workload with proofreaders and fact checkers.
Reporters are journalists who primarily report facts that they have gathered and those who write longer, less news-oriented articles may be called feature writers.
Photographers and graphic artists provide images and illustrations to support articles. Journalists often specialize in a subject area, called a beat , such as sports, religion, or science. Columnists are journalists who write regular articles recounting their personal opinions and experiences. Printers and press operators physically print the newspaper. Printing is outsourced by many newspapers, partly because of the cost of an offset web press the most common kind of press used to print newspapers and also because a small newspaper's print run might require less than an hour of operation, meaning that if the newspaper had its own press it would sit idle most of the time.
If the newspaper offers information online, webmasters and web designers may be employed to upload stories to the newspaper's website. The staff of the circulation department liaise with retailers who sell the newspaper; sell subscriptions; and supervise distribution of the printed newspapers through the mail, by newspaper carriers , at retailers, and through vending machines.
Free newspapers do not sell subscriptions, but they still have a circulation department responsible for distributing the newspapers. Sales staff in the advertising department not only sell ad space to clients such as local businesses, but also help clients design and plan their advertising campaigns. Other members of the advertising department may include graphic designers , who design ads according to the customers' specifications and the department's policies.
In an advertising-free newspaper , there is no advertising department. Newspapers often refine distribution of ads and news through zoning and editioning. Zoning occurs when advertising and editorial content change to reflect the location to which the product is delivered.
The editorial content often may change merely to reflect changes in advertising—the quantity and layout of which affects the space available for editorial—or may contain region-specific news. In rare instances, the advertising may not change from one zone to another, but there will be different region-specific editorial content.
As the content can vary widely, zoned editions are often produced in parallel. Editioning occurs in the main sections as news is updated throughout the night. The advertising is usually the same in each edition with the exception of zoned regionals, in which it is often the 'B' section of local news that undergoes advertising changes.
As each edition represents the latest news available for the next press run, these editions are produced linearly, with one completed edition being copied and updated for the next edition.
The previous edition is always copied to maintain a Newspaper of Record and to fall back on if a quick correction is needed for the press. For example, both The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal offer a regional edition, printed through a local contractor, and featuring locale specific content.
The Journal's global advertising rate card provides a good example of editioning. See also Los Angeles Times suburban sections.
Most modern newspapers  are in one of three sizes:. Newspapers are usually printed on cheap, off-white paper known as newsprint. Since the s, the newspaper industry has largely moved away from lower-quality letterpress printing to higher-quality, four-color process , offset printing.
In addition, desktop computers, word processing software , graphics software , digital cameras and digital prepress and typesetting technologies have revolutionized the newspaper production process.
These technologies have enabled newspapers to publish color photographs and graphics, as well as innovative layouts and better design. To help their titles stand out on newsstands, some newspapers are printed on coloured newsprint. For example, the Financial Times is printed on a distinctive salmon pink paper, and Sheffield 's weekly sports publication derives its name, the Green 'Un , from the traditional colour of its paper.
Both the latter promoted major cycling races and their newsprint colours were reflected in the colours of the jerseys used to denote the race leader; for example the leader in the Giro d'Italia wears a pink jersey. The number of copies distributed, either on an average day or on particular days typically Sunday , is called the newspaper's circulation and is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates.
Circulation is not necessarily the same as copies sold, since some copies or newspapers are distributed without cost. Readership figures may be higher than circulation figures because many copies are read by more than one person, although this is offset by the number of copies distributed but not read especially for those distributed free. In the United States, the Alliance for Audited Media maintains historical and current data on average circulation of daily and weekly newspapers and other periodicals.
According to the Guinness Book of Records , the daily circulation of the Soviet newspaper Trud exceeded 21,, in , while the Soviet weekly Argumenty i Fakty boasted a circulation of 33,, in Germany's Bild , with a circulation of 3. In the United Kingdom, The Sun is the top seller, with around 3. While paid readership of print newspapers has been steadily declining in the developed OECD nations, it has been rising in the chief developing nations Brazil, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa , whose paid daily circulation exceeded those of the developed nations for the first time in According to the Indian Readership Survey, the Dainik Jagran is the most-read, local-language Hindi newspaper, with A common measure of a newspaper's health is market penetration, expressed as a percentage of households that receive a copy of the newspaper against the total number of households in the paper's market area.
In the s, on a national basis in the U. As other media began to compete with newspapers, and as printing became easier and less expensive giving rise to a greater diversity of publications, market penetration began to decline. It wasn't until the early s, however, that market penetration dipped below percent. By , it was 53 percent and still falling. For example, someone might want only a Sunday paper, or perhaps only Sunday and Saturday, or maybe only a workweek subscription, or perhaps a daily subscription.
Most newspapers provide some or all of their content on the Internet, either at no cost or for a fee. In some cases, free access is available only for a matter of days or weeks, or for a certain number of viewed articles, after which readers must register and provide personal data.
In other cases, free archives are provided. The business model of having advertising subsidize the cost of printing and distributing newspapers and, it is always hoped, the making of a profit rather than having subscribers cover the full cost was first done, it seems, in by The Sun , a daily paper that was published in New York City.
Rather than charging 6 cents per copy, the price of a typical New York daily at the time, they charged 1-cent, and depended on advertising to make up the difference. Newspapers in countries with easy access to the web have been hurt by the decline of many traditional advertisers. Department stores and supermarkets could be relied upon in the past to buy pages of newspaper advertisements, but due to industry consolidation are much less likely to do so now.
The classified category is shifting to sites including Craigslist , employment websites, and auto sites. National advertisers are shifting to many types of digital content including websites, rich media platforms, and mobile. In recent years, the advertorial emerged. Let English-speaking immigrants go to English schools. Demand that your candidates commit to an equal electoral map.
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