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Medical Marijuana: What the Research Shows

Annotated Bibliography on Legalizing Medical Marijuana

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So for many years different cultures used this plant as a medicine. As of today this drug is classified as a schedule I drug, this is the same category as heroine and means it has no medicinal value. Does this drug actually pose a threat or does this drug provide a natural resource to help as a medicinal substance? The federal government does not recognize the medicinal agent THC Tetrahydrocannabinol found in marijuana as an accepted form of medical treatment.

This despite the fact science and history has proven this drug is suggested to be used for this very purpose. I believe the data in this report will reveal patients and healthcare professionals support the legalization of medical marijuana.

I think we will discover in this study despite the controversy science and personal experiences show the benefits medical marijuana can have when administered appropriately. For this study, the researcher will have direction over: The number of questions on the survey 2. The types of questions on the survey 3.

The collection of the information via Survey Monkey 4. Charting the information 5. Participant selection Limitations of the Study For this study, the researcher will not have direction over: How many respondents will actually participate in the survey 2. See the participants name with their answers — answers are anonymous 3. How honest the participants are when answering the survey 4.

Convenience of the survey to the participant. Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature Cannabis Marijuana History Cannabis which is Greek for Hemp is a plant native to South Asia made up of wood stems and flowers and has been used in many forms for thousands of years.

Located among the flowers and leaves of the female plant is where you will find the medicinal properties Wright, There are now 19 states and the District of Columbia that have legalized the use of medical marijuana. More and more states are beginning to accept the medicinal purposes of this drug for their communities. Marijuana was associated with racism and anti-immigration that influenced the prohibition and started public panic regarding the safety and protection of their youth White and Holman, By the time the federal government outlawed marijuana in , nearly every State had adopted similar legislation White, Anslinger claimed this drug would cause typically honest people to begin to commit violent crimes and corrupt the youth.

He succeeded in convincing people everywhere this drug was extremely harmful and should not be legal for public sale or consumption. All of this was done without any scientific backing or public debate White and Holman, The information was formulated by witnessing the effects from the patients themselves Uritsky, McPhearson, and Pradel, Today cannabis is used in the medical industry for patients who may suffer from cancer, seizures, migraines, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, among others.

Considering the risks of dependency regulations should be in place just as they are with the approved medications that have the same risks. As we progressed over the years so have our technology, knowledge and scientific studies. We know more today than we did ten or twenty years ago and still we manage to discover more ourselves and our environment. There have been great strides in finding cures for diseases and healthier natural resources to mitigate our pain and suffering.

Cannabis has been around for centuries and known for its natural therapeutic properties. However, today other than federally approved research, medical marijuana continues to be a crime under federal law. Science is proving this drug may not be as harmful as previously suspected safe for human consumption for medical treatment.

These studies however, are not met without resistance, there are still many who feel marijuana is harmful and have no beneficial factors to justify its legalization. As scientific evidence develops more data will be readily available to demonstrate the promising advances marijuana can bring to the medical community.

Chapter 3 Methodology Research Design The purpose of this research is to query the opinions of healthcare professionals and current or prospective users of medical marijuana. This research will be done via the internet to reach multiple states in order acquire the appropriate data.

The collection of this information will be provided specifically through an online survey sponsored by survey monkey. This provider offers a free and anonymous service to their members. The participants will be told their responses will be anonymous to protect their privacy. Once each individual has agreed to participate in the survey and they will provide their email to me in order to receive the link for the survey.

I will explain my interest in the study and the importance behind their opinion on the subject matter. It will be important and beneficial to allow each person to fully understand the purpose behind the survey and how these results will be reviewed. The individuals will receive an email with a link to the survey site and the steps explaining how to navigate through the survey with a reminder the survey will be anonymous.

Contact information will also be provided if additional assistance is needed. The participants will be asked to complete the survey within three days due to the urgency of the study. Follow-up The last day of the survey a reminder email will be sent reminding the participants the deadline for the survey is due. This email will include the survey link and contact information. Data Collection and Instruments. Information will be collected via the website survey monkey from the internet.

Participants will be sent an email from survey monkey with information about the survey and instructions. There will be five questions for the patient questionnaire and five questions for the healthcare professional questionnaire.

The survey will be open for three consecutive days before updates and changes will no longer be accepted. Each question has three selections and only one can be made.

This will make data collection much easier to calculate and chart with better accuracy. The questions were separated by patients and healthcare professionals so we could gather information from two different perspectives. This helps eliminate some of the bias in the research. Survey monkey will track all responses and will give me the option of how I want the data to be charted. After the survey is complete I will review the summary and download the data provided by survey monkey to conclude my research.

Survey monkey will be the resource website used as the survey engine for the participants. The survey completes with a thank you notification. Chapter 4 Findings Below you will see in figure 1 the results from the survey that represents the opinions of the patients regarding the legalization of medical marijuana.

Figure 1 Does the patient feel medical marijuana should be legalized? A Signal of Misunderstanding," proclaimed that "from what is now known about the effects of marihuana, its use at the present level does not constitute a major threat to public health," and recommended Congress and state legislatures decriminalize the use and casual distribution of marijuana for personal use.

Another important study was conducted by Dr. Donald Tashkin of the University of California at Los Angeles, a pulmonologist who has studied marijuana for 30 years.

This recent study, the largest of its kind, unexpectedly concluded that smoking marijuana, even regularly and heavily, does not lead to lung cancer. Tashkin indicated that the findings "were against our expectations We hypothesized that there would be a positive association between marijuana use and lung cancer, and that the association would be more positive with heavier use What we found instead was no association at all, and even a suggestion of some protective effect.

Although I could go on and on quoting different studies done by well-respected doctors, government appointed committees, etc. In any which way, the effects most definitely do not warrant total prohibition. California's Proposition was the first statewide medical marijuana voter initiative adopted in the USA. A To ensure that seriously ill Californians have the right to obtain and use marijuana for medical purposes where that medical use is deemed appropriate and has been recommended by a physician who has determined that the person's health would benefit from the use of marijuana in the treatment of cancer, anorexia, AIDS, chronic pain, spasticity, glaucoma, arthritis, migraine, or any other illness for which marijuana provides relief.

B To ensure that patients and their primary care givers who obtain and use marijuana for medical purposes upon the recommendation of a physician are not subject to criminal prosecution or sanction. C To encourage the federal and state governments to implement a plan to provide for the safe and affordable distribution of marijuana to all patients in medical need of marijuana. Further, Senate Bill which passed on September 20, , was signed by the Governor on October 13, , and which became effective on January 1, , added an Article 2.

Among other things, Article 2. Public opinion on the medical value of marijuana has been sharply divided. Some dismiss medical marijuana as a hoax that exploits our natural compassion for the sick; others claim it is a uniquely soothing medicine that has been withheld from patients through regulations based on false claims.

Proponents of both views cite "scientific evidence" to support their views and have expressed those views at the ballot box in recent state elections.

This study was supported under Contract No. This report summarizes and analyzes what is known about the medical use of marijuana; it emphasizes evidence-based medicine derived from knowledge and experience informed by rigorous scientific analysis , as opposed to belief-based medicine derived from judgment, intuition, and beliefs untested by rigorous science.

After their nearly two-year review, the investigators affirmed: Except for the harms associated with smoking, the adverse effects of marijuana use are within the range tolerated for other medications.

So many people who are ill must resort to using marijuana for medicinal purposes. Many of these people have never used marijuana previously, thereby quelling the theory that the use of marijuana for illness is just an "excuse" to smoke pot. The list of diseases which cannabis can be used for includes but is not limited to: There are over 60 chemicals in marijuana which may have medical uses.

It is relatively easy to extract these into food or beverage, or into some sort of lotion, using butter, fat, oil, or alcohol. One chemical, cannabinol, may be useful to help people who cannot sleep. Another is taken from premature buds and is called cannabidiolic acid. It is a powerful disinfectant. Marijuana dissolved in rubbing alcohol helps people with the skin disease herpes control their sores, and a salve like this was one of the earliest medical uses for cannabis.

The leaves were once used in bandages and a relaxing non-psychoactive herbal tea can be made from small cannabis stems. As stated before, marijuana is classified by the federal government as a Schedule I drug, a reservation for the most dangerous drugs that have no recognized medical use.

Although many states have legalized medical marijuana, possession, use and cultivation is still illegal on the federal level. There have been past attempts to reclassify marijuana.

The government declined to initiate proceedings on the basis of their interpretation of U. The Court ruled against the government and ordered them to process the petition.

After continuing to rely on treaty commitments in their interpretation of scheduling related issues concerning the petition a Court decision made it clear that the CSA requires a full scientific and medical evaluation and the fulfillment of the rescheduling process before treaty commitments can be evaluated.

In , Francis L. In his recommendation he stated,. To conclude otherwise, on this record, would be unreasonable, arbitrary and capricious. The second petition was filed by Jon Gettman in It included research and other data that emerged after the record was closed in the prior proceedings before Judge Young and focused primarily on whether cannabis has the high potential for abuse required for Schedule I status.

However, in a federal court denied that petitioners had standing because the petitioners were not injured parties. In , a loosely formed coalition composed of organizations and individuals supporting the reclassification of marijuana known as the Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis submitted a formal rescheduling petition.

The purpose of this latest rescheduling petition is to demonstrate through volumes of the latest scientific and medical research that cannabis does not have a high potential for abuse, has a relatively low dependence liability, is safe for use under medical supervision, and has an accepted medical use in the United States.

This petition is still in the works. Many states have not legalized marijuana use for medicinal purposes and, in those states, raising a medical necessity defense may be necessary.

The basis necessity defense, also known as the "choice of two evils" was available to those who, when confronted with a serious and immediate threat, found they could save themselves only by taking action that violated a law. The medical necessity defense was established for marijuana in United States v. Randall FN34 in which a glaucoma patient who smoked marijuana in order to retain his eyesight was found not guilty of violating anti-marijuana law by the District of Columbia Superior Court.

Recognizing "the right of an individual to preserve and control his or her body," and observing that "the prohibition of marijuana is not well founded," the court concluded that "the evil the defendant sought to avert, blindness, is greater than that he performed to accomplish it, growing marijuana in his residence in violation of the District of Colombia Code.

Generally, for a successful state necessity defense the defendant must show: Under federal law, a defendant must establish the existence of four elements to be entitled to a necessity defense: My thesis is that the legalization of marijuana would have a positive influence on America. In this paper I have tried to show that this is indeed true. Billions of dollars would be saved in government expenditures and, in fact, revenue from taxation on the regulated sale of marijuana would be in the billions.

Nobody has ever died from a marijuana overdose. Finally, and most obviously, marijuana for medical use would benefit many many different sick people with no other legal alternatives. Is there really any question? The time has come!! FN2 "Legalizing Hemp;" Author unknown. Nov 26, , http: FN3 "Hemp Facts;" Author unknown. Hemp Industries Association; Nov 26, , http: FN5 Biomass, in the energy production industry, refers to living and recently living biological material which can be used as fuel or for industrial production Wikipedia; Biomass; Nov 26, , http: Schaffer Library of Drug Policy.

Control of Marihuana, Alcohol and Tobacco;" Nov 30, FN19 Aldrich, Michael, Ph. FN20 Gieringer, Dale, Ph. FN28 "History and Uses of Marijuana. Americans for Safe Access. FN30 Marijuana Rescheduling Petition. United States Department of Justice. Info for Medical Marijuana Litigators: Federalism Issues and the Necessity Defense.

FN34 United States v. Randall, Daily Wash. FN36 "Medical Necessity Defense. To turn text into a link, highlight the text, then click on a page or file from the list above. This Sidebar appears everywhere on your wiki. Add to it whatever you like -- a "Home" link, a navigation section, a link to your favorite web sites, or anything else. To edit this page, request access to the workspace.

A Marijuana Discovery

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In this paper I will discuss the history of marijuana, the industrial uses of hemp, the prohibition of marijuana, the economical impact prohibition has on America, the effects of marijuana use on the mind and the body, marijuana for medical use, and how legalization of marijuana would have a positive influence on America.

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Although many are against the legalization of marijuana, this paper will argue that the legalization of marijuana is warranted. It will prove this by weighing marijuana’s effects on the body when smoked against the effects on the body when drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco, by presenting research facts on its medicinal qualities, and.

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This research is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of legalizing marijuana for medicinal use demonstrating how the different viewpoints generate business opportunities that can be extremely difficult to . Read this Miscellaneous Research Paper and over 88, other research documents. Legalization of Marijuana. Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana became popular as a medicine in the United States during the mid-nineteenth century and used to /5(1).