It emphasizes the rationale for commonly used research procedures and their applications. The nature of educational research is outlined and the steps in the research process are clearly defined. Because identification of a research problem is so important, the entire second chapter is devoted to this topic. It has been updated with a new chapter on evaluating research papers, additional information on computers and software used in research, and a data disk consisting of three data sets that accompanies the text.
The book is broad in scope covering both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies as well as sampling designs, measurement, data collection, preparation of data sets for computer analysis, statistical procedures, and reports. For anyone interested in the research methodology for education and educational psychology. From inside the book. This form of inquiry typically involves personal interview or direct observation throughout the data collection process. Examples of this type of design may be a study based on the relationships and interpersonal dynamics of a specific family, documenting the experiences of a small group of patients with traumatic brain injury in a rehabilitation facility, or observing the interactions of selected toddlers in a preschool setting.
The purpose of relational or associational research is to identify the relationship or association between two or more variables. The purpose is not to establish cause and effect but to:.
There are two types of correlational studies; concurrent and predictive. Concurrent correlational studies involve assessment of the relationship between characteristics that were collected by the researcher at the same point in time.
Predictive correlational studies may be utilized when a researcher is interested in determining whether knowing a previously documented characteristic or set of characteristics can lead to the prediction of a later characteristic or set of characteristics. This type of design is often utilized when it is not possible to control the experience, exposure, or influences which may affect participants.
The purpose of experimental or quasi-experimental research is to establish a cause and effect relationship between two variables. The researcher deliberately manipulates a treatment or independent variable and measures how it affects the behavior or reaction of subjects the dependent variable. In order for this research design to be appropriately utilized, the researcher must be able to:. As may be apparent from the description, this type of design is very difficult to utilize when working with human subjects.
In order for the drug to be approved for distribution to the general public, it is necessary to establish its effectiveness. However, there exists the potential for harm to individuals who participate in the project, whether receiving the drug or not.
While this type of study occurs, and must occur if advances are to be realized, there are many safeguards, supervisory and administrative requirements, and limitations imposed upon studies involving human subjects. For this reason, quasi-experimental designs are commonly used in medical and allied health fields of study.
Quasi-experimental designs are used when the researcher is unable to control for a necessary variable, or set of variables, but follow stringent guidelines for controlling error.
For example, trials for an experimental pharmaceutical may utilize a quasi-experimental design to ascertain the effectiveness of a specific medication. Subjects are carefully pre-tested and monitored as the independent variable the medication is manipulated. Life care planners will analyze a variety of research data when developing plans to meet patient-specific needs and should be familiar with the basic assumptions and limitations of each design.
In the example, the two groups are cooperative learning and lecture, and they will be compared on performance on the final achievement test. Quasi-experimental research is just like true experimental with the only difference being the lack of randomly formed groups. Of the two types of experimental research, quasi-experimental is most commonly used in education. It is difficult to find schools that will allow a researcher to select students from classes and assign them randomly to other classes.
So, in most educational research situations, intact classes are used for the experiment. When intact classes or groups are used, but manipulation is present--the researcher determines which group receives which treatment--then quasi-experimentation results. For example, a researcher uses his to classes for an experiment. He randomly assigns cooperative learning to class B, and randomly assigns lecture to class A. Following the treatment, an instrument is administered to all participants to learn whether the treatments resulted in differences between the two classes.
Note in this example the groups were not randomly formed, but the treatment was manipulated and groups were compared, so quasi-experimentation resulted. Ex Post Facto and Correlational. Both true and quasi-experimental research are distinguished by one common characteristic: No other type of research has manipulation of the independent variable.
Two other forms of quantitative research, which are not experimental due to lack of manipulation, are ex post facto sometimes called causal-comparative and correlational. Often both of these types are grouped into what researchers call non-experimental research or simply correlational research. Thus, correlational research can be understood to include both of the two types I discuss below: For our purposes, we will make a distinction between these two types.
Ex post facto looks like an experiment because groups are compared; there is, however a key difference--no manipulation of the independent variable.
With ex post facto research, the difference between groups on the independent variable occurs independent of the researcher.
For example, suppose a researcher contacts a school's principal and asks for two teachers, one who uses cooperative learning and one who uses lecture. The researcher's goal is the compare student's scores on a test to determine which method produces better achievement.
This is very similar to the example given above for experimental research, but the key difference is that the researcher did not manipulate the independent variable. The researcher did not determine which class, or which teacher, would use cooperative learning or lecture. Rather, the researcher asked which teachers use which instructional strategy, and then selected the groups for comparisons.
Ex post facto research is ideal for conducting social research when is not possible or acceptable to manipulate the characteristics of human participants. It is a substitute for true.
Ex post facto study or after-the-fact research is a category of research design in which the investigation starts after the fact has occurred without interference from the researcher.
Ex post facto design is a quasi-experimental study examining how an independent variable, present prior to the study in the participants, affects a dependent variable. A quasi-experimental study simply means participants are not randomly assigned. Causal research uses different terms: ex post facto studies gather data retrospectively (e.g. given the obvious effects of smoking, the researcher will look in the past to find the potential cause), causal comparison where data are gathered from pre-formed groups and the independent variable is not manipulated in the experiment. For this, the researcher will have either to find a population on which .
An ex post facto research design is a method in which groups with qualities that already exist are compared on some dependent variable. Also known as "after the fact" research, an ex post facto design is considered quasi-experimental because the subjects are not randomly assigned - they are grouped. ex post facto research include the failure to recog- nize the limitations of the design, the failure to realize that an experimental approach is possible.