For instance, they must collect any dried blood from the pane of a window without brushing it off with their arms or any other part of their body. This is necessary since at such a point, it is possible to have fingerprints which would be rubbed off in case of carelessness and this would mean rubbing it off hence doing away with very important piece of evidence Layton, Again, the tools like sledge hammer may be useful for breaking through walls beyond which terrible smells seem to be emerging.
Immediately the investigators arrive at the scene and makes sure that it is secure the process of evidence collection begins with the preliminary step of initial walk-through or the crime scene survey. The main intention of the initial walk through is in order to obtain the overall ambiance of the crime scene by identifying whether someone secretly moved in something none related to the crime between the occurrence of the crime and the arrival of the CSI.
Again, it is in the performance of initial walk-through or survey thatThe Crime scene investigation comes up with the first time theories founded on what is obtained from visual examination of the scene.
One thing worth noting is that the initial walk through stages does not involve any touching within the crime scene.
Instead, only notes of potential evidence are made. Crime scene investigation photography comes to play at this initial walk-through process since thorough documentation is done at through taking of photographs, and sketch drawing done. At this point, the initial walkthrough changes into second walk-through Home security, Other elements that can be included in the second walk through include the taking of video. Basically, the second walk-through goes a step ahead to document any identified evidence within the crime scene and still touches nothing just documenting every useful detail Home security, After the second walk-through, what follows is a determination of the sequence of evidence collection to be used for the entire crime investigation process.
The sequence may be based on information like the location of the scene which could be interior, exterior or within a vehicle; the evidence condition which means could be fragile or stable; the condition of the weather based on how such would affect the evidence at the crime scene; the conditions for scene management depending on whether they will contaminate or alter the evidence and finally the any other additional techniques that needs to be incorporates by other specialized persons.
Apart from identifying the information to determine the evidence collection sequence, the crime scene investigators must ensure that they secure the evidence through the use of the right tools and equipment to conduct the crimes scene evidence collection Home security, The use of appropriate tools and equipment during crime scene investigation becomes handy when collecting all the potential evidence systematically and in the most appropriate way possible.
One condition concerning the evidence collection tools is that they should be sterile. Such tools include latex gloves, forceps, forceps, tweezers, plastic and paper bags, hand tools, thermometers, cardboard boxes, swabs and scalpels amongst others. At the scene of the crime, there could be different kinds of evidence.
The main categories include the dried material and the liquid material. Each of these materials requires different collection methods or techniques. This brings us to the two main evidence collection techniques at the crime scene which are the dried material collection technique and the liquid material collection technique. Although this are the best practices in evidence collection at the crime scene, biological evidence whether liquid or dry at the crime scene should be recovered using the swabbing technique.
In the dried material collection technique, investigator first wears gloves and then uses distilled water t moisten the swab. With moistening, this simply means dampening but not making overly wet.
Next, follows the rubbing of the stained area using a single moistened swab in the case of a small stain or use of multiple swabs in the case of large stain.
On the other hand, very little or small stains call for greater concentration as this would mean using the tip of the swab to collect as much of the evidence available as possible.
With the evidence on the swabs, next is the drying of the moist evidence on the swab. However, the drying involves no rubbing or scrubbing but involves the use of air hence air-drying the swabs.
The swabs already containing evidence are then placed into different packages which could be inside paper envelopes. In order to control the evidence, then the same techniques is used to collect sample evidence from an area that has not been stained.
Although the physical evidence is just but a part of the crime investigation the final goal is to finally arrive at a point where the crime perpetrators can be convicted Layton, However, the evidence collection must be done so carefully so that is preserved in its current form in as much a way as is possible.
Other considerations for ensuring evidence and crime scene investigation as safe as possible is the guarantee that even when used by the lab, the evidence will be in its best state to enable the laboratory people to reconstruct the crime in the best way possible or even come up with the identification of the criminals.
The issues required legally so as to come up with evidence that can be acceptable before a court of law is also important during crime scene evidence collection security. Caution must be taken to ensure that no folding of such wet evidence is done and instead, it should be put inside paper wrapping to prevent contamination in the course of the transfer. This will also prevent blood stain patterns as well as cross-contamination.
The item with the item is then evidence is then air dried ready for use as dried evidence before being packages in a container for transportation to the lab. In the case where the present evidence is in liquid form on a surface or other fixed location, then a swab can be used to absorb the liquid in the most possible way and then air-dried before packaging each of the swabs inside an appropriate container.
Like the case of dried material, then a sample is collected from an area that is not stained to be used as control. Other forms of evidence that can be collected from the crime scene include trace evidence, hair and fibers, fingerprints, footwear or tool mark impressions, firearms and documents. The most common form of trace evidence includes gunshot residue, chemicals, illicit drugs, residue from paint and glass among others. Like in the case of biological materials, the investigator must first ensure the security of the evidence by wearing disposable hand latex gloves.
Booties face masks and biohazard waste bags are also necessary Layton, The tools involved in the collection of trace evidence include tweezers, knives, plastic containers with lids and a filtered vacuum device. After trace evidence has been identified and collected, it is then the responsibility of the lab to reveal the composition of the trace and determine what had transpired at the scene of the crime and whoever was involved.
The evidence collected at the scene of the crime is taken to the appropriate lab depending on its nature like a chemistry lab hosts all the unknown crime scene substance, hair or other biological substances to the DNA lab while others are taken to the trace laboratory. At the crime scene, it is possible to identify visible, molded or latent fingerprints. These are very useful tools for use in eliminating a suspect or in revealing the real identity of the victim or the suspect.
The investigators must hence be careful as such form of evidence must be securely and carefully handled. For those forms of fingerprints not visible to the human eye such as those left on soft medium like soap, it is the role of the crime scene investigator to ensure that magnifying glasses are carefully used to determine them and photographs other tools used to document them.
In the case of latent fingerprints, the best ways to recover them include using powder, chemicals like iodine and cyanoacrylate fuming or superglue fuming. Three-dimensional evidence in the form of footwear impressions as left in the mud or window frame are useful in the provision of crime scene evidence. However, it is not possible to purely present the evidence in its form on the surface to the personnel in the forensic lab.
In this case, a photograph of such evidence is taken and then a cast is made using a mixture in the form of pancake batter. The cast is therefore made as a trace of the original footprint for use in investigations since it is portable. In the case of abandoned firearms at the scene of the crime, the investigator then used gloves to pick them by the barrels before putting them in bags for use in the forensic labs.
It is also possible to have abandoned documents at the scene of the crime. After the evidence has been collected, it is the role of the crime scene investigator to ensure that the evidence is properly inventoried and packaged before it is allowed to leave the scene of the crime. This way, the investigator is guaranteed that the evidence will not be contaminated or altered of its original form. Such is what is referred to as crime scene evidence preservation Miller, Other ways of preserving the evidence from a crime scene is securing the crime scene using physical barriers like tapes, or even vehicles to prevent the spectators at the scene of the crime from getting access to the crime scene and contaminating the already present evidence at that point.
In addition, this is used to restrict the unauthorized entering or leaving of the crime scene as this can be used as a catalyst to change or alter the crime scene by the suspects. In this light, the restriction to the crime scene must be only permissible for an exceptional few crime scene investigators Miller, Having packaged all evidence collected from a given scene, the investigator can the use specified codes in order to mark the evidence where possible.
In cases of evidence that cannot be marked like soil, and appropriate container like an envelope would be necessary as it even allows for the outer marking of the evidence Miller, In this case, it is always essential to mark the outer container that contains any given evidence rather than the evidence itself Reno et al, This must only be done after ensuring that the container that has been used to host the evidence is properly sealed with tamper resistant tape.
The best way to then mark an evidence containing container is by first identifying the name of the crime scene investigator or evidence collector, the date, time and location where the evidence has been collected as well as the information about the evidence contained in such a container Miller, Having collected the crime scene evidence and preserved it in the right way is not enough for a crime scene investigator. This is simply because the evidence has to be presented to the relevant agencies for testing in the lab and documentation of the results before the delivery back to the case detectives.
In his testimony, the Crime scene investigator has to clearly state the methods used to recover that evidence, the number of persons who have been in contact with it and the necessary information about the evidence collected. Such a way of presenting the evidence before a court of law not only shed light on the actual event of the day of the crime but also gives a brief insight of what conspired leading to the crime.
From the lab results, the presentation of the crime scene evidence will entail the provision of details like when the probable time for crime commission was, how such a crime was committed as well as the detail of the probable person-gender, weight and height- who was responsible for commission of such a crime. In addition, crime scene evidence presentation in a court of law is also the time when evidence from eye or other witnesses is included.
Issues related to correctional institutions, incarceration and release After evidence has been presented the court decide on the fate of the victim depending on how concrete such evidence had been made during the presentation USToday, According to the FBI Hate Crime Statistics, there were 7, "single-bias" criminal hate crime incidents involving 9, offenses and 9, victims defined as "a person, business, institution, or society as a whole" in An FBI analysis of those incidents revealed the following:.
Motivation Percentage Most impacted group Racial bias The figure is double what it was in Bello, , p. The attacks of September 11, , sent shockwaves through American society. Coordinated terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, DC, brought home to many Americans that the United States is not immune to being attacked on its own soil.
Because the attacks were carried out exclusively by self-professed Muslims, the attacks also shined a spotlight, perhaps for the first time, on the 2.
Researchers have found that the expected spike in anti-Muslim hate crime did occur in the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks. These researchers also found, however, that the anti-Muslim hate crimes followed a specific pattern of intensity: Most curiously, given the locations of the terrorist attacks, "New York City and Washington, DC, anti-Islamic hate crime reports are essentially non-existent DC did have one report.
As for the somewhat counterintuitive finding that anti-Muslim hate crimes were markedly absent from police blotters in New York City and Washington, DC, the research team suggested that this. In other words, the trauma of the attacks drew people in New York and Washington, DC, together rather than driving them apart.
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